Social Anxiety and School Refusal in Adolescence


Electronic versions of our publications can be obtained by sending an e-mail to Esther van den Bos:bosejvanden 

In press

  • Poppelaars, E. S., Harrewijn, A., Westenberg, P. M., & Van der Molen M. J. W. (in press). Frontal delta-beta cross-frequency coupling in high and low social anxiety: An index of stress regulation? Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-018-0603-7
  • Colzato, L. S., Jongkees, B. J., De Wit, M., Van der Molen, M. J. W., & Steenbergen, L. (in press). Variable heart rate and a flexible mind: Higher heart rate variability predicts better cognitive flexibility. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience.
  • Blöte, A. W., Miers, A. C., Van den Bos, E., & Westenberg, P. M. (in press). The role of performance quality in adolescents’ self-evaluation and rumination after a speech: Is it contingent on social anxiety level? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. DOI: 10.1017/S1352465818000310
  • Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Van Steenbergen, H., Van der Wee, N. A. J., & Westenberg, P. M. (in press). Not intended, still embarrassed: Social anxiety is related to increased levels of embarrassment in response to unintentional social norm violations. European Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.03.002
  • Day, I. N. Z., Van Blankenstein, F. M., Westenberg, P. M., & Admiraal, W. F. (in press). Teacher and student perceptions of intermediate assessment in higher education. Educational Studies. DOI: 10.1080/03055698.2017.1382324
  • Loscalzo, Y., Giannini, M., & Miers, A. C. (in press). Social Anxiety and Interpretation Bias: Examining Clinical and Subclinical Components in Adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health.



  • Harrewijn, A., van der Molen, M. J. W., Verkuil, B., Sweijen, S. W., Houwing-Duistermaat, J. J., & Westenberg, P. M. (2018). Heart rate variability as a candidate endophenotype of social anxiety: A two-generation family study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 237, 47-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.001
  • Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Harrewijn, A., Tissier, R. L. M., Van der Molen, M. J. W., Van Steenbergen, H., Van Vliet, I. M., ... Westenberg, P. M. (2018). The Leiden Family Lab study on social anxiety disorder: A multiplex, multigenerational family study on neurocognitive endophenotypes. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 27, e1616. DOI: 10.1002/mpr.1616 10.1002/mpr.1616 
  • Kortink, E. D., Weeda, W., Crowley, M., Gunther Moor, B., & van der Molen, M. J. W. (2018). Community structure analysis of rejection sensitive personality profiles: A common neural response to social evaluative threat? Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18(3), 581-595. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-018-0589-1
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., Harrewijn, A., & Westenberg, P. M. (2018). Will they like me? Neural and behavioral responses to social-evaluative peer feedback in socially and non-socially anxious females. Biological Psychology, 135, 18-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.02.016
  • Harrewijn, A., van der Molen, M. J. W., van Vliet, I. M., Houwing-Duistermaat, J. J., & Westenberg, P. M. (2018). Delta-beta correlation as a candidate endophenotype of social anxiety: A two-generation family study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 227, 398-405. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.11.019
  • Harrewijn, A., van der Molen, M. J. W., van Vliet, I., Tissier, R. L. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2018). Behavioral and EEG responses to social evaluation: A two-generation family study on social anxiety. NeuroImage Clinical, 17, 549-562. DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.11.01010.1016/j.nicl.2017.11.010
  • Maynard, B. R., Heyne, D., Brendel, K. E., & Bulanda, J. J., Thompson, A. M. & Pigott, T. D. (2018). Treatments for school refusal among children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 28, 56-67. DOI:10.1177/1049731515598619


  • Maynard, B. R., Vaughn, M. G., Nelson, E. J., Salas-Wright, C. P., Heyne, D. A., Kremer, K. P. (2017). Truancy in the United States: Examining temporal trends and correlates by race, age, and gender. Children and Youth Services Review, 81, 188-196. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.08.008
  • Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Van Steenbergen, H., Pannekoek, J. N., Fouche, J. P., Lochner, C., Hattingh, C. J., ... Van der Wee, N. A. J. (2017). Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder. Neuroimage: Clinical, 16, 678-688. DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.08.001
  • Harrewijn, A., Schmidt., L. A., Tang, A., Westenberg, P. M., & Van der Molen, M. J. W. (2017). Electrocortical measures of information processing biases in social anxiety disorder: A review. Biological Psychology, 129, 324-348. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2017.09.013
  • Miers, A. C., Ziermans, T., & van Rijn, S. (2017). Connecting the dots between schizotypal symptoms and social anxiety in youth with an extra X chromosome: A mediating role for catastrophizing. Brain Sciences, 7(9), 113. DOI:10.3390/brainsci7090113
  • Heyne, D., Vreeke, L.J., Maric, M., Boelens, D., & van Widenfelt, B.M. (2017). Functional assessment of school attendance problems: An adapted version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 25(3), 178-192. DOI: 10.1177/1063426616661701.
  • Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Van Steenbergen, H., Kreuk, T., Van der Wee, N. J. A., & Westenberg, P. M. (2017). How embarrassing! The behavioral and neural correlates of social norm violation. PLoS ONE, 12, e0176326. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176326 
  • Van den Bos, E., Tops, M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2017). Social anxiety and the cortisol response to social evaluation in children and adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 159-167. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.02.003
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., Dekkers, L. M. S., Westenberg, P. M., Van der Veen, F. M., & Van der Molen, M. W. (2017). Why don't you like me? Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback. NeuroImage, 146, 474-483. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.08.045
  • Harrewijn, A., Schel, M. A., Boelens, H., Nater, C. M., Haggard, P., & Crone, E. A. (2017). Children who stutter show reduced action-related activity in the rostral cingulate zone. Neuropsychologia, 96, 213-221. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.01.022


  • Harrewijn, A., Van der Molen, M. J. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2016). Putative EEG measures of social anxiety: comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 16(6), 1086–1098. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-016-0455-y
  • Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Blackford, J. U., Brühl, A. B., Blair, K. S., Van der Wee, N. J. A., & Westenberg, P. M. (2016). Neurobiological candidate endophenotypes of social anxiety disorder. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 362–378. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.040
  • Van der Veen, F., Van der Molen, M. J. W., Van der Molen, M. W., & Franken, I. H. A. (2016). Thumbs up or down? Effects of neuroticism and depression on psychophysiological responses to social evaluation. Cognitive and Affective Behavioral Neuroscience, 16(5), 836-847. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-016-0435-2
  • Wijsman, L., Warrens, M., Saab, N., van Driel, J., & Westenberg, P. M. (2016). Declining trends in student performance in lower secondary education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 31(4), 595-612. DOI:10.1007/s10212-015-0277-2
  • Blöte, A. W., & Miers, A. C., & Westenberg, P. M. (2016). Adolescent Social Anxiety and Substance Use: The Role of Susceptibility to Peer Pressure. Child Development Research, 2016, 9468972. DOI: 10.1155/2016/9468972
  • Heyne, D. A., & Maynard, B. R. (2016). Interventions for school refusal and truancy: A case of 'old dogs in need of new tricks'? In R. Menzies, M. Kyrios, and N. Kazantzis (Eds.), Innovations and future directions in the behavioural and cognitive therapies (pp, 23-28). Samford Valley: Australian Academic Press.
  • Fraga González, G., Van der Molen, M. J. W., Žarić, G., Bonte, M., Tijms, J., Blomert, L., ... Van der Molen, M. W. (2016). Graph Analysis of EEG Resting State Functional Networks in Dyslexic Readers. Clinical Neurophysiology, 127, 3165-3175. DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.06.023
  • Van den Bos, E., Van Duijvenvoorde, A. C. K., & Westenberg, P. M. (2016). Effects of adolescent socio-cognitive development on the cortisol response to social evaluation. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1151-1163. DOI:10.1037/dev0000133
  • Evans, B. E., Stam, J., Huizink, A. C., Willemen, A. M., Westenberg, P. M., Branje, S., ... Van Lier, P. A. C. (2016). Neuroticism and extraversion in relation to physiological stress reactivity during adolescence. Biological Psychology, 117, 67-79. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.03.002
  • Van den Bos, E., De Rooij, M., Sumter, S. R., & Westenberg, P. M. (2016). Continued development of recursive thinking in adolescence: Longitudinal analyses with a revised recursive thinking test. Cognitive Development, 37, 28-41. DOI:10.1016/j.cogdev.2015.11.002
  • Enter, D., Terburg, D., Harrewijn, A., Spinhoven, P., & Roelofs, K. (2016). Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Socal Anxiety Disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 26-33. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.008


  • Van der Molen, M. J. W. (2015). Abnormal EEG oscillatory dynamics in fragile X syndrome: Insights from resting-state and stimulus processing investigations. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 47, 78. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.04.214
  • Dekkers, L. M. S., Van der Molen, M. J. W., Gunther Moor, B., Van der Veen, F., & Van der Molen, M. W. (2015). Cardiac and electro-cortical concomitants of social feedback processing in women. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1506-1514. DOI:10.1093/scan/nsv039
  • Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Andela, C. D., Van der Werff, S. J. A., Pannekoek, J. N., Van Steenbergen, H., Meijer, O. C. ... Pereira, A. M. (2015). Altered neural processing of emotional faces in remitted Cushing's disease. Psychoneuroendocrinology  59, 134–146. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.05.001 
  • Blöte, A. W., Miers, A. C., Heyne, D. A., & Westenberg, P. M. (2015). Social Anxiety and the School Environment of Adolescents. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L. J. García-Lopez, and M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social Anxiety and Phobia in Adolescents: Development, Manifestation and Intervention Strategies (pp. 151-181). Springer International Publishing.
  • Heyne, D.A., Sauter, F.M., & Maynard, B.R. (2015). Moderators and mediators of treatments for youth with school refusal or truancy. In M. Maric, P.J.M. Prins, and T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Moderators and mediators of youth treatment outcomes (pp.230-266). Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress.
  • Blöte, A. W., Poungjit, A., Miers, A. C., Van Beek, Y., & Westenberg, P. M. (2015). The Speech Performance Observation Scale for Youth (SPOSY): Assessing social performance characteristics related to social anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 6, 168-184. DOI:10.5127/jep.039713
  • Maynard, B. R., Brendel, K. E., Bulanda, J. J., Heyne, D. H., Thompson, A. M., & Pigott, T. D. (2015). Psychosocial interventions for school refusal with primary and secondary school students: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 12. DOI: 10.4073/csr.2015.12
  • Blöte, A. W., Miers, A. C., & Westenberg, P. M. (2015). The role of social performance and physical attractiveness in peer rejection of socially anxious adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25, 189-200. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12107
  • Van den Bos, E., & Westenberg, P. M. (2015). Two-year stability of individual differences in para(sympathetic) and HPA-axis responses to public speaking in childhood and adolescence. Psychophysiology, 52, 316-324. DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12337
  • Van den Bos, E., & Poletiek, F. H. (2015). Learning simple and complex artificial grammars in the presence of a semantic reference field: Effects on performance and awareness. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 (158). DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00158 


  • Manassis, K., Lee, T. C., Bennett, K., Zhao, X. Y., Mendlowitz, S., ... Heyne, D., ... Wood, J. J. (2014). Types of parental involvement in CBT with anxious youth: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 1163-1172. DOI: 10.1037/a0036969
  • Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., Heyne, D. A. & Westenberg, P. M. (2014). Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: The role of social anxiety and negative cognition. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 787-794. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.09.008
  • Vink, M., Zandbelt, B. B., Gladwin, T., Hillegers, M., Hoogendam, J. M., Van den Wildenberg, W. P. M. ... Kahn, R. (2014). Fronto-striatal activity and connectivity increase during proactive inhibition across adolescence and early adulthood. Human Brain Mapping, 35(9), 4415-4427. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.22483
  • Blöte, A. W., Miers, A. C., Heyne, D. A., Clark, D. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2014). The relation between social anxiety and audience perception: Examining Clark and Wells' (1995) model among adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,42(5), 555-567. Copyright © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2013. DOI: 10.1017/S1352465813000271
  • Heyne, D. A., Sauter, F. M., Ollendick, T. H., Van Widenfelt, B. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2014). Developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent school refusal: Rationale and case illustration. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(2), 191-215. DOI: 10.1007/s10567-013-0160-0
  • Van der Molen, M.J.W., Stam, C.J., & Van der Molen, M.W. (2014). Resting-state EEG oscillatory dynamics in fragile X syndrome: Abnormal functional connectivity and brain network organization. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e88451. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088451
  • Vink, M., Derks, J. M., Hoogendam, J. M., Hillegers, M., & Kahn, R. S. (2014). Functional differences in emotion processing during adolescence and early adulthood. Neuroimage, 91, 70 - 76.
  • Van den Bos, E., De Rooij, M., Miers, A. C., Bokhorst, C. L., & Westenberg, P. M. (2014). Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: Pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking. Child Development, 85(1), 220-236. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12118
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., Poppelaars, E., Van Hartingsveldt, C. T. A., Harrewijn, A., Gunther Moor, B., & Westenberg, P. M. (2014). Fear of negative evaluation modulates electrocortical and behavioral responses when anticipating social evaluative feedback.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(936). DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00936


  • Maric, M., Heyne, D. A., MacKinnon, D. P., van Widenfelt, B. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2013). Cognitive Mediation of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcomes for anxiety-based school refusal. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 41 (5), 549-564. DOI: 10.1017/S1352465812000756
  • Bennett, K., Manassis, K., Walter, S., Cheung, A., Wilansky-Traynor, P., ... Heyne, D., ... Wood, J. (2013). Cognitive behavioral therapy age effects in child and adolescent anxiety: An individual patient data meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 30 (9), 829-841. DOI: 10.1002/da.22099
  • Heyne, D., & Sauter, F. M. (2013). School refusal. In C. A. Essau, & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Limited.
  • Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., de Rooij, M., Bokhorst, C. L., & Westenberg, P. M. (2013). Trajectories of social anxiety during adolescence and relations with cognition, social competence and temperament. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41 (1), 97-110. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-012-9651-6
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., & Van der Molen, M. W. (2013). Reduced alpha and exaggerated theta power during the resting-state EEG in fragile X syndrome. Biological Psychology, 92, 216-219.
  • Hoogendam, J. M., Kahn, R. S., Hillegers, M. H. J., Van Buuren, M., & Vink, M. (2013). Different developmental trajectories for anticipation and receipt of reward during adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 6, 113-124.
  • Zandbelt, B. B., Bloemendaal, M., Hoogendam, J. M., Kahn, R. S., & Vink, M. (2013). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI reveal cortical and subcortical interactions during stop-signal response inhibition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25(2), 157-174.


  • Blöte, A. W., Bokhorst, C. L., Miers, A. C., & Westenberg, P. M. (2012). Why are socially anxious adolescents rejected by peers? The role of subject-group similarity characteristics. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 123-134. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00768.x
  • Sumter, S. R., Bokhorst, C. L., & Westenberg, P. M. (2012). Resistance and Conformity. In R. J. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence. New York: Springer.
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., van der Molen, M. W., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Hamel, B. J., Curfs, L., & Ramakers, G. J. A. (2012). Auditory change detection in fragile X syndrome males: A brain potential study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 123, 1309-1318.
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., van der Molen, M. W., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Hamel, B. J., Curfs, L., & Ramakers, G. J. A. (2012). Auditory and visual cortical activity during selective attention in fragile X syndrome: A cascade of processing deficiencies. Clinical Neurophysiology, 123, 720-729.
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., van der Molen, M. W., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Hamel, B. J., Curfs, L., & Ramakers, G. J. A. (2012). Attentional set-shifting in fragile X syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 78, 206-217.
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W. (2012). ​Fragile X syndrome: cognitive abilities and underlying weaknesses in information processing. Neuropraxis, 16, 53-60.
  • Van den Bos, E., Christiansen, M. H., & Misyak, J. B. (2012). Statistical learning of probabilistic nonadjacent dependencies by multiple-cue integration. Journal of Memory and Language, 67(4), 507-520.


  • Bokhorst, C.L., & Westenberg, P.M. (2011). Social anxiety disorder: A normal fear gone awry? Book chapter in W. Silverman & A. Field (Eds). Anxiety disorders in Children and Adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 90-102). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Heyne, D.A. & Sauter, F.M. & Widenfelt, B.M., van & Vermeiren, R.R.J.M. & Westenberg, P.M. (2011). School refusal and anxiety in adolescence: Non-randomized trial of a developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25 (7), 870-878.
  • Maric, M. & Heyne, D.A. & Heus, P., de & Widenfelt, B.M., van & Westenberg, P.M. (2011). The role of cognition in school refusal: An investigation of automatic thoughts and cognitive errors. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 40, 255–269.
  • Maric, M. & Heyne, D.A. & Widenfelt, B.M., van & Westenberg, P.M. (2011). Distorted cognitive processing in youth: The structure of negative cognitive errors and their associations with anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35 (1), 11-20.
  • Miers, A. C., Blöte, A.W., Sumter, S.R., Kallen, V.L., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Subjective and objective arousal correspondence and the role of self-monitoring processes in high and low socially anxious youth. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 2, 531-550. doi:10.5127/jep.019411. 
  • Miers, A. C., Blöte, A.W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Negative social cognitions in socially anxious youth: Distorted reality or a kernel of truth? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 214-223. (doi:10.1007/s10826-010-9423-2).
  • Van Veelen, N. M. J., Vink, M., Ramsey, N. F., Van Buuren, M., Hoogendam, J. M., & Kahn, R. S. (2011). Prefrontal lobe dysfunction predicts treatment response in medication-naive first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 129(2-3), 156-162.
  • Van Veelen, N. M. J., Vink, M., Ramsey, N. F., Sommer, I. E. C., Van Buuren, M., Hoogendam, J. M., & Kahn, R. S. (2011). Reduced language lateralization in first-episode medication-naive schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 127(1-3), 195-201.


  • Blöte, A.W., Duvekot, J., Schalk, R.D.F., Tuinenburg, E.M., & Westenberg, P.M. (2010). Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior Towards Socially Anxious Adolescents. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 39(12), 1498-1507. (doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9463-3).
  • Bokhorst, C.L., Sumter, S.R., & Westenberg, P.M. (2010). Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years: Who is perceived as most supportive? Social Development, 19, 417-426. (doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00540.x).
  • Miers, A.C., Blöte, A.W., & Westenberg, P.M. (2010). Peer Perceptions of Social Skills in Socially Anxious and Nonanxious Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38 (1), 33-41. (doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9345-x).
  • Sauter, F.M. & Heyne, D.A. & Blöte-Aanhane, A.W. & Widenfelt, B.M., van & Westenberg, P.M. (2010). Assessing therapy-relevant cognitive capacities in young people: Development and psychometric evaluation of the self-reflection and insight scale for youth. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38 (3), pp. 303-317.
  • Sauter, F.M. & Snel, R. & Heyne, D.A. & Widenfelt, B.M., van (2010). Schoolweigering bij adolescenten: het @school project [School refusal in adolescence: the @school project]. PsychoPraktijk, 2 (4), pp. 14-18.
  • Sumter, S.R., Bokhorst, C.L., Miers, A.C., Van Pelt, J., & Westenberg, P.M. (2010). Age and puberty differences in stress responses during a public speaking task: Doadolescents grow more sensitive to social evaluation? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 1510-1516. (doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.05.004).
  • Vuijk, P & Heyne, D.A. & Efferen-Wiersma, E.S. (2010). @school project: Prevalentie en functies van problematisch schoolverzuim in het Rotterdamse basisonderwijs. Kind en Adolescent, 31 (1), pp. 29-40. 
  • Vuijk, P & Heyne, D.A. (2010). Ongeoorloofd schoolverzuim [Unapproved school absenteeism]. Pulse: Primair Onderwijs, 2, pp. 34-37.
  • Van der Molen, M. J. W., Huizinga, M., Huizenga, H. M., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Van der Molen, M. W., Hamel, B. J., ... Ramakers, G. J. A. (2010). Profiling cognition in fragile X syndrome in males: Strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 426-439.
  • Röder, C. H., Hoogendam, J. M., & Van der Veen, F. M. (2010). FMRI, antipsychotics and schizophrenia. Influence of different antipsychotics on BOLD-signal. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 16(18), 2012-2025.
  • Hoogendam, J. M., Ramakers, G. M.J., & Di Lazzaro, V. (2010). Physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain. Brain Stimulation, 3(2), 95-118.
  • Van den Bos, E., & Poletiek, F. H. (2010). Structural selection in implicit learning of artificial grammars. Psychological Research, 74, 138-151.


  • Blöte, A. W., Kint, M.J.W., Miers, A.C., & Westenberg, P.M. (2009). The relation between public speaking anxiety and social anxiety: A review. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 305-313.
  • Miers, A.C., Blöte, A.W., Bokhorst, C. L., & Westenberg, P.M. (2009). Negative Self-evaluations and the Relation to Performance Level in Socially Anxious Children and Adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47  (12), 1043-1049. 
  • Sauter, F.M. & Heyne, D.A. & Westenberg, P.M. (2009) Cognitive behavior therapy for anxious adolescents: Developmental influences on treatment design and delivery. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12 (4), pp. 310-335.
  • Sumter, S.R., Bokhorst, C.L., Steinberg, L., & Westenberg, P.M. (2009). The developmental pattern of resistance to peer influence in adolescence: Will the teenager ever be able to resist? Journal of Adolescence, 32, 1009-1021. 
  • Sumter, S.R., Bokhorst, C.L., & Westenberg, P.M. (2009). Social fears during adolescence: Is there an increase in fear and avoidance? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(7), 897-903.
  • Vuijk, P & Heyne, D.A. (2009). Ongeoorloofd schoolverzuim in het basisonderwijs. Advies & Educatie, 3, pp. 4-5.
  • Westenberg, P.M., Bokhorst, C.L., Miers, A.C., Sumter, S.R., Kallen, V.L., Van Pelt, J., & Blöte, A.W. (2009). A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: Subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task. Biological Psychology, 82, 116-124.


  • Bokhorst, C.L, Westenberg, P.M., Oosterlaan, J, Heyne, D.A. (2008). Changes in social fears across childhood and adolescence: Age-related differences in the factor structure of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 135-142. 
  • Ezinga, M. A. J., Weerman, F. M., Westenberg, P. M. and Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.(2008). Early adolescence and delinquency: Levels of psychosocial development and self-control as an explanation of misbehaviour and delinquency. Psychology,Crime & Law,14:4, 339 — 356
  • Kallen, V.L., Tulen, J.H.M., Utens, E., Treffers, Ph.D.A., De Jong, F.H., & Ferdinand, R.F. (2008). Associations between HPA-axis functioning and level of anxiety in children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 131-14. 
  • Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., Bögels, S. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2008). Interpretation Bias and Social Anxiety in Adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1462-1471.
  • Sumter, S.R., Bokhorst, C.L., & Westenberg, P.M. (2008). The Robustness of the Factor Structure of the Self-Restraint Scale: What Does Self-Restraint Encompass? Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1082-1087.
  • Van den Bos, E., & Poletiek, F. H. (2008). Effects of grammar complexity on artificial grammar learning. Memory and Cognition, 36, 1122-1131.
  • Van den Bos, E. & Poletiek, F. H. (2008). Intentional artificial grammar learning: When does it work? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20, 793-806.


  • Blöte, A.W., Kint, M. J. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2007). Peer behavior towards socially anxious adolescents: Classroom observations. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2773-2779.  
  • Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2007). Socially anxious adolescents’ perception of treatment by classmates. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 189-198.
  • Kallen, V.L., Tulen, J.H.M., & Ferdinand, R.F. (2007). Associations between attentional bias and anxiety in children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104, 221-235.
  • Westenberg, P.M. Gullone, E., Bokhorst, C.L., Heyne, D.A., & King, N.J. (2007). Social evaluation fear in childhood and adolescence:  Normative developmental course and continuity of individual differences. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 471-483. 


  • Ezinga, M. A. J., Weerman, F. M., Westenberg, P. M., & Bijleveld, C. C. J. H. (2006). De relatie tussen stadia in de persoonlijkheidsontwikkeling en delinquent gedrag in de vroege adolescentie. Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, 43 (3).
  • Melvin, G. & Tonge, B.J. & King, N.J. & Heyne, D.A. & Gordon, M.S. & Klimkeit, E. (2006). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, and their combination for adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45 (10), pp. 1151-1161.
  • Heyne, D.A. (2006). School refusal. In: Fisher, J.E. & O'Donohue, W.T. (Eds.), Practitioner’s guide to evidence-based psychotherapy, pp. 599-618. New York: Springer.


  • King, N.J. & Heyne, D.A. & Ollendick, T.H. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety and phobic disorders in children and adolescents: A review. Behavioral Disorders, 30, pp. 241-257.
  • Tonge, B.J. & King, N.J. & Klimkeit, E. & Melvin, G. & Heyne, D.A. & Gordon, M. (2005). The Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Depression in Adolescents (SEQ-DA): Development and psychometric evaluation. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, pp. 357-363.


  • Cohn, L. D., & Westenberg, P. M. (2004). Intelligence and maturity: Meta-analytic evidence for the incremental and discriminant validity of Loevinger’s measure of ego development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(5).
  • Heyne, D.A. & Rollings, S. (2004). Niechec do szkoty [School refusal practitioner guide (Polish)]. Gdansk: Gdanskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
  • Heyne, D.A. & King, N.J. & Tonge, B.J. (2004). School refusal. In: Ollendick, T.H. & March, J.S. (Eds.), Phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A clinician¿s guide to effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions, pp. 236-271. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Heyne, D.A. & King, N.J. & Ollendick, T.H. (2004). School refusal. In: Graham, P. (Ed.), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Children and Families (Cambridge child and adolescent psychiatry series), pp. 320-341. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Heyne, D.A. & King, N.J. (2004). Treatment of school refusal. In: Barrett, P.M. & Ollendick, T.H. (Eds.), Handbook of interventions that work with children and adolescents: Prevention and treatment, pp. 243-272. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Drewes, M. J., Goedhart, A. W., Siebelink, B. M., & Treffers, Ph. D. A. (2004). A developmental analysis of self reported fears in late childhood through mid adolescence: Social-evaluative fears on the rise? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 481-495.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Hauser, S. T., & Cohn, L. D. (2004). Sentence completion measurement of psychosocial maturity. In M. J. Hilsenroth & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Personality Assessment (pp. 595-616). Volume 2 in M. Hersen (Ed.-in-Chief), Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment. Hoboken, NJ:  John Wiley & Sons.

Until 2003

  • King, N.J. & Heyne, D.A. & Tonge, B.J. & Mullen, P. & Myerson, N. & Rollings, S. & Ollendick, T.H. (2003). Sexually abused children suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder: Assessment and treatment strategies. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 32, pp. 2-12.
  • Drewes, M. J., & Westenberg, P. M. (2001). The impact of modified instructions on ego level scores: A psychometric hazard or indication of optimal ego level? Journal of Personality Assessment, 76(2), 229-249.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Van Strien, S. D., & Drewes, M. J. (2001). Revised description and measurement of ego development in early adolescence: An artifact of the written procedure? Journal of Early Adolescence, 21, 469-491.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Siebelink, B. M., & Treffers, Ph. D. A. (2000). Psychosocial developmental theory in relation to anxiety and its disorders. In W. K. Silverman & Ph. D. A. Treffers (eds.), Anxiety Disorders in Children: Research, Assessment, and Intervention (pp. 72-89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Drewes, M. J., Siebelink, B. M., Treffers, Ph. D. A., Jonckheer, J., & Goedhart, A. W. (2000). Zinnenaanvullijst Curium (ZALC): Een instrument voor het meten van ego-ontwikkeling. Lisse: Swets Test Publishers.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Siebelink, B. M., Warmenhoven, N. J. C., & Treffers, Ph. D. A. (1999). Separation anxiety and overanxious disorders: Relations to age and level of psychosocial maturity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(8), 1000-1007.
  • Westenberg, P. M., &  Gjerde, P. F. (1999). Ego development during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood: A nine-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 233-252.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Blasi, A. & Cohn, L. D. (1998) (Eds.). Personality development: Theoretical, empirical, and clini­cal investigations of Loevinger' s conception of ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Jonckheer, J., Treffers, D.A., & Drewes, M. J. (1998). Ego development in children and adolescents: Another side of the Impulsive, Self-protective, and Conformist ego levels. In P. M. Westenberg, A. Blasi, & L. D. Cohn (Eds.), Personality development: Theoretical, empirical, and clini­cal investigations of Loevinger's conception of ego development (pp. 89-112). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum­.
  • Westenberg, P. M., Treffers, Ph. D. A., & Drewes, M. J. (1998), A new version of the WUSCT: The sentence completion test for children and youths (SCT-Y). In: J. Loevinger (Ed), Technical foundations for measuring ego development (pp. 81-89). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Carlson, V. K., & Westenberg, P. M. (1998). Cross-cultural research with the WUSCT­. In J. Loevinger (Ed.), Technical foundations for measuring ego development (pp. 57-75). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Loevinger, J., Carlson, V., Westenberg, P. M., & Lasker, H. (1998). Ego development as a stage-type theory and a process. In  J. Loevinger (Ed.), Technical foundations for measuring ego development (pp. 49-55)­­­­­. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlba­um­.
  • John, O. P., Pals, J. L., & Westenberg, P. M. (1998). Personality Prototypes and ego development: Conceptual similarities and relations in adult women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1093-1108.
  • Van den Bos, E., & Jeannerod, M. (2002). Sense of body and sense of action both contribute to self-recognition. Cognition, 85, 117-187.